Category Archives: Sicily

The pruning guys

Sustainable pruning made cool

You’ve all heard of flying winemakers, who dash off around the world imparting their wisdom to young wineries, but how many of you have considered the fact that expert pruners might also be doing something similar? I certainly hadn’t until I met Marco Simonit, when I was lucky enough to attend a whole-day masterclass on pruning organised for Vinitaly Academy alumni and other guests by the Sicilian wine magazine Cronache di Gusto as an educational prelude to their Taormina Gourmet festival.

It wasn’t quite what I expected. Sitting in the tasting room at the Pietradolce winery on Etna, I was anticipating a highly technical, and probably somewhat boring, lecture on pruning techniques, followed no doubt by some practical exercises in the vineyard, that would be highly useful for my studies but would not necessary enthuse me about pruning. Then, this denim-clad guy with a cool white quiff appeared and proceeded to introduce himself. This was Marco Simonit, one of the founders of Simonit&Sirch. They call themselves the pruning guys, or to be more formal, Vine Master Pruners. Their team of 20 pruning guys fly all around the world helping wineries develop more sustainable ways of pruning. Yet, typically their clients are not young wineries, nor are they small fry; they include big names such as Chateau Latour and Chateau Yquem in Bordeaux, Leroy in Burgundy, Roederer in Champagne, Ornellaia in Tuscany, and the list just goes on. They work with similarly prestigious clients throughout France and Italy as well as in Germany, Austria, Spain, Portugal, Australia, Chile, Argentina, South Africa and California.


Pruning for health and longevity

So, why do established estates such as these need the services of these master pruners? Well, many vineyards around the world are ridden with Esca, a fungal disease that can enter through the cuts made by pruning. It’s a serious problem in Bordeaux, where on average 30% of Sauvignon Blanc vines show symptoms as does 7% of Cabernet Sauvignon. Under the desiccation cones – think of them like scars – caused by the pruning, the Esca rots the live wood, which slowly dies. The greater the number and size of the cuts, the greater the damage caused. The yield of the vine is compromised, it doesn’t grow properly and eventually it has to be grubbed up and replaced. One cross-section of a ’live’ vine that Marco shows us is really pretty shocking – about 70% of the vine is actually dead and the sap cannot flow properly and nourish the grapes as this dead wood is effectively strangling the vine. With so little live wood, it’s no wonder that the vine is eventually only able to produce feeble canes and a limited quantity of grapes.

Left to their own devices in the wild, vines will grow to enormous dimensions, creeping up trees and spreading themselves out; they are centenary and can live for hundreds of years. Marco shows us some amazing photos of huge old vines, including some on the Amalfi Coast that are more than two hundred years old with huge trunks and branches and some huge bush vines in Napa. However, domesticated vines need to be pruned so that they fit in the limited space – their first enemy – available to them in the vineyard. A great variety of different training methods have been devised depending on the region, for example guyot in Burgundy, pergola in Trentino, albarello on Etna and einzelfahl in the Mosel. These vines all need to be pruned to maintain the form of these training systems and prevent them from encroaching on their neighbour. This limits their growth in space and in time, since it, unfortunately, slowly kills them in many cases, as they fall prey to fungi and diseases like Esca and lack the energy to fight them.


Marco has been pruning vines for over 30 years and has been trying to find a more respectful approach; over the last 15 years, Simonit&Sirch have developed their own method to ensure vines lead longer, healthier lives. It works on the basis of four main concepts. Firstly, shaping the vine by pruning so that it is able to develop a natural, healthy system of branches. Secondly, ensuring that the sap is able to flow throughout the vine’s structure, without being hindered by desiccated areas caused by pruning wounds. This means always making cuts on the same side – the top – so that the sap can continue to flow along the vine’s branches. Thirdly, only making small cuts and only on wood that is one or two years’ old. This means that the size of the wound is reduced and hence also the chance of a wood disease entering. Finally, always giving the plant further defence by allowing a certain amount of protective wood if you do have to cut older wood. And actually, when you think about this, it’s pretty logical really. Compare the vine with a person and what effect large and frequent wounds would have on them. Moreover, encouraging the vine’s ramification and construction of live wood helps it to store nutrients and better resist drought, meaning that it needs less assistance with irrigation and fertilisation, so it’s easier to be not only organic or biodynamic, which is not enough anyway, but also to be sustainable.


Sustaining local tradition

Unlike the impression we have of flying winemakers, with their one-style-fits-all winemaking, the pruning guys not only respect the vine with their method, but also local traditions and savoir faire. They don’t import one model or formula, they take the local training and pruning methods and ’tweak’ them; they seek out local solutions. For example, the branches of cordon- trained vines are encouraged to grow up, but they could also be trained obliquely, so that they develop a step of new live wood each year, but don’t grow upwards too quickly. They believe it’s important to get to know the history, variety and brand style when developing solutions. Eighty-three-year-old Madame Leroy of Burgundian Domaine Leroy was deemed crazy by the locals when she decided to raise the main wire in her vineyards and increase the height of the stakes, giving the vines more space, rather than cutting them back. Nobody has else has stakes that high in Burgundy. However, as Marco says, that’s bravery, not craziness. Tradition is the vines, not the stakes. Or you could make a loop in the cane to come back to the canopy and main wire, rather than cutting it. In albarello vines, they have encouraged branching with spiral development of the arms, helping to maximise the space the vine has to grow in and avoid overly fast upward growth. In fact, the albarello, or bush vine, enables you to respect the vine’s growth better as they can grow up and out and generally have more space, which is probably why many old vines are in fact bush vines. However, the key thing is to find personal solutions which both respect heritage and reduce the impact on the vines.

As you can imagine, there is also resistance to this from local pruners, who the guys mentor and train. Yet, using such methods has led to a reduction in the symptoms of Esca, although it may be the case that vines are infected but are better able to coexist with the disease as they are stronger and healthier. For example, in Franciacorta, 4.8% of Chardonnay vines are affected by Esca, yet in vineyards which practice these sustainable pruning methods, ten years on, only 0.8% of them are showing symptoms.


Dealing with existing Esca

Diseases like Esca are easily spread when pruning as a pruner moves through the vineyard from plant to plant. Vines known to have Esca – unfortunately, it can take 10-15 years for them to show symptoms – should be marked so that they can be pruned separately with the secateurs being disinfected between, thus avoiding unnecessary manmade spread of the disease.

They also perform surgery on affected vines, just like you would deal with a cavity in a tooth or remove a cancerous growth. They have developed new tools to remove the desiccation cones like a cork and go inside the vine and clean it, removing the part infected by fungi and reducing the toxins, while respecting the sap flow and thus not creating further wounds. It takes two to five minutes to operate on each vine, and regrowth and recovery are also surprisingly fast. They began experimenting in Bordeaux and have now performed surgery on 12,000 vines in seven regions, including Champagne and Bolgheri. Over 90% of these now exhibit no symptoms and needed no further treatment. Yet, this is not something new, as at the end of the 19th century, Poussard also performed vine surgery very successfully, healing 90-95% of vines operated on.

Healing the vines means that they don’t need to be grubbed up and replaced. This is not only more cost-effective as vines generally recover from surgery within a couple of years, while the cost of replacing a vineyard is significantly more than surgery and also results in the loss of production for five years or so. Moreover, replacing individual vines within established, premium vineyards will lead to a loss of quality, as the vineyard will be populated by vines of varying ages which will not ripen at the same time. They will then not be harvested at optimal ripeness as it would not be feasible to pick the grapes selectively. Thus, these heterogenous vineyards will also affect the house style, which is ultimately not desirable, particularly at prestigious estates. Furthermore, the evolution of a style connected to a single vineyard is something truly valuable, which can only be achieved with the character originating from old vines.

Hands-on learning

After lunch, Marco also took us into the vineyards for a bit of practical experience. Although, as it was the wrong time of year for pruning, nobody was allowed any secateurs in their hands, but Marco took us around vines that had not yet been pruned and we investigated the possibilities in each case for continued natural branching. Following his morning presentation, it was surprisingly easy to select the right canes in most cases. Of course, it was also wonderful to see those old Etna vines that had clearly been respected and in the past and had managed to achieve longevity and still produce high-quality grapes.

Clearly pruning with respect is one of the factors that ensures healthy vines, healthy grapes and hence quality wine – only 5% of grapes from infected vines already lead to a noticeable quality reduction. It also means that we have something to leave to the next generation – a true patrimony of magnificent, healthy vines that can live to a ripe old age and still produce quality healthy fruit, instead of sickly vines that need to be replaced every twenty years or so.

I so thoroughly enjoyed Marco’s energetic, clearly delivered training and learnt so much that I even momentarily considered joining Simonit&Sirch’s pruning school at Plumpton College in January, but my enthusiasm waned when I thought about spending two days outside in wintry English vineyards. However, following this one day of training, I can seriously say that I now understand far more about pruning than I did before and especially what it means for the vines.

*First published in Hungarian in the Sustainability special edition of Vince magazine.

Volcanic viticulture and Baroque palaces

Exploring eastern Sicily

Sicily, the ball waiting to be kicked by Italy’s boot, is currently one of the creative hotspots for Italian wine. Long maligned for producing oceans of deeply coloured, overly alcoholic wine that was shipped north by the tankerload to boost the paler wines of the north and France, it then dabbled with international varieties like Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah and finally fell victim to the EU’s vine-pull scheme to halt overproduction and excessive agricultural subsidies. However, Sicily’s winemakers have reawakened and producers around the island are now creating increasingly high-quality wines mostly from indigenous varieties.

Ancient traditions

The Mediterranean’s largest island and historically a crossroads for many cultures and trading routes, Sicily benefitted from the winemaking techniques the Ancient Greeks brought with them, although wine had already been made on the island for centuries. Its warm climate, breezes from the surrounding azure seas and diverse landscape of hills, mountains and, of course, the infamous volcano Etna all create the perfect conditions for viticulture to thrive. Its arid climate also means than organic viticulture is increasingly practised.

Wine grapes are cultivated across much of the island and it boasts an astounding 23 DOCs (PDOs) and 1 DOCG (a more prestigious PDO with stricter regulations) as well as the catch-all Sicilia DOC (created in 2001 by a group of producers to help promote Sicily’s indigenous varieties) and a PGI – Terre Siciliane IGT.


Historically, Sicily was famed for its Marsala, a fortified wine made in a similar way to Sherry which was, just like Sherry and Port, primarily destined for the glasses of the British. The British Navy had expanded its fleet in the region and was seeking something to replace Port for those stationed in there. A wine merchant from Liverpool dosed the local wine with alcohol and, voilà, Marsala was born and became an instant success. The wine, like most fortified wines, is no longer in favour, but if you find yourself in the west of the island, the town of Marsala, flanked by glistening salt pans and windmills, is definitely worth a visit, as are the Cantine Florio, which provides an excellent insight into the making of Marsala wine.

Head east

However, it’s the east of the island where much of the new winemaking action is taking place nowadays. As most people fly into Catania, the city shimmering in the shadow of ever-threatening Mount Etna, this makes life very convenient. Wizzair also fly there three times a week from Budapest. What’s more there’s plenty to enrich your Sicilian experience than just wine. You can scale Mother Etna, go hiking, stroll around magnificent Baroque cities, discover ancient Greek remains and gaze over the sparkling Ionian Sea from chic Taormina.

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Alpine viticulture in the mezzogiorno

The trendiest wine region in Italy at the moment has to be Etna. The region was in the doldrums like the rest of Sicily until its fortunes were revived around the turn of the century by outsiders like Andrea Franchetti, founder of Passopisciaro, and Belgian Frank Cornelisson, who were were drawn to the mountain’s terroir. However, Giuseppe Benanti is credited as being one of the first to revive winemaking on Etna. The Benanti ’Pietramarina’ is one of Etna, and Italy’s iconic, ageworthy whites. Produced from 80-year-old, albarello (bush-trained) Carricante, the main white variety on Etna, it’s dense and mineral-driven with plenty of zesty, citrus acidity. Carricante is mainly grown on Etna’s eastern slopes around the town of Milo, where it is entitled to be labelled as Etna Bianco Superiore. If you visit the Benantis, you can also view a palmento, the traditional Sicilian winery.


Although Carricante, often with a dash of Catarratto or even obscure local variety Minella, makes fabulous zesty whites, Etna is all about red wine. The main protagonist here is Nerello Mascalese along with its understudy Nerello Cappuccio. Nerello Mascalese is often compared to Barolo and red Burgundy for its ability to reflect the terroir on which it is grown. It combines the elegance of Pinot Noir with the tannins and structure of Nebbiolo, producing taut ethereal wine when grown at higher altitude (up to 1100m above sea level) and more concentration and texture lower down, but always with subtle aromas of sour cherry, tobacco, herbs and mineral notes. Etna Rosso is often made from Mascalese alone, but it can be blended with up to 20% of the more burly Cappuccio, which adds colour and softens the former’s acidity. Some single-varietal Cappuccio is also bottled and demonstrates a lovely spicy, floral character.

The ultimate terroir wines

Terroir plays a key role on Etna with the volcano being divided into contrade (or cru) based on lava flows from different eruptions over millenia, thus soil composition may vary widely within just few metres, with elevation further emphasising these differences. The contrade were officially deliminated in 2011. Before then, you were not allowed to state the contrada on the label, so Franchetti cunningly got around that by labelling his contrada wines with the first letter of their name, so R for Rampante for instance. Tasting some of these wines gives you a real feel for the differences between the individual contrade.

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Narrow roads wind through the scrub, vineyards and pistachio groves covering Etna’s slopes, but you can also take the Circumetnea railway which begins in Catania. Although you can’t reach everywhere with it, it runs right past Tenuta di Fessina’s lovingly restored lava-stone winery, which also boasts an atmospheric guesthouse. They served up some pretty good food and wine pairings too. If you don’t want to stay on Etna itself, nearby Taormina with its ancient Greek theatre affording magnicent views of the smoking volcano, perched above the sea, makes a convenient base. Taormina Gourmet, a two-day wine and food festival is held here annually in October.

The Baroque triangle

Lovers of Nero d’Avola and Baroque architecture should head further south to Noto, Modica and Ragusa, stopping off at Syracuse’s ancient port of Ortigia on the way. This is Nero d’Avola country and the variety’s name is said to come from the nearby seaside town of Avola. The area around Pachino, also home to the extra sweet Pachino DOP tomato, is considered its grand cru. Like elsewhere in Sicily, bulk wine was the name of the game here and you can still see derelict wineries with rusty pipes where dark, high-alcohol wine would have been pumped onto containers at the port. However, those days are long gone and producers like Zisola, Feudo Maccai and Gulfi are turning out some elegant, yet powerful Nero d’Avola under the Noto DOC. Grown on the area’s white calcareous soils, they boast delicious berry fruit and soft tannins. Gulfi are going one step further and producing vineyard-selected Nero d’Avola. Matteo Cantania shows me how the location (altitude and proximity to the sea) of each individual vineyard affects the wines’ character.

This is one of the hottest areas of the island, lying even further south than the tip of Tunisia, so it’s worth seeking cooler air in stunning Baroque hilltop city Noto, resplendently rebuilt within 50 years following 1693’s devastating earthquake, which killed around 50,000 people and flattened 50 towns. The beautiful balconied palazzi with carved rosettes and nymphs built from soft tufa take on a beautiful honey colour in the bright sunshine. Visiting the historic Caffè Sicilia is a must and you could balance this with trying inventive Sicilian cuisine at Ristorante Crocifisso.

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Elegant Nero d’Avola blends

Driving west, past other Baroque pearls, Ragusa and Modica, which incidentally hides a delightful chocolaterie, Bonajuto, still making thickly grained chocolate using ancient methods, you come to another Nero d’Avola stronghold and the island’s only DOCG, Cerasuolo di Vittoria. Here the Nero d’Avola is blended with another local variety, Frappato, which produces a delicately coloured, fresh juicy, fragrant wine with aromas of strawberry, violet and wild herbs. The Nero d’Avola gives the blend structure while the Frappato provides freshness and elegance. One of Italy’s rising stars, charismatic Arianna Occhipinti is based here and produces elegant wines fom the sandy red topsoil underlaid with white calcareous soils found in Vittoria. She was the first to bottle Frappato as a single varietal. Her spacious cellars and wonderful atmospheric tasting room were perfect for escaping the downpour outside and enjoying her organically farmed, terroir-driven wines. Arianna is the niece of Giusto Occhipinti of the COS Winery, source of the region’s winemaking renaissance and another advocate of low-intervention winemaking. He vinifies and ages his most famous wine, ‘Pithos’, Greek for a large storage container, in terra cotta amphorae.

So, if your perception of Sicilian wine is limited to overripe, sweet Nero d’Avola and unbalanced, alcoholic Chardonnay, it’s time to take a trip to its East and discover its elegant balanced wines and energetic winemakers reinventing historic regions and rediscovering and refining wines made from Sicilian varieties. It won’t do any harm either to erase the memory of the Mafia and its legacy, by exploring Sicily’s Baroque cities, ancient sites and natural beauty.

*First published in Hungarian in the August 2019 edition of Vince magazine.

Visiting the garden of Diodoros

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Italy is a magnet for lovers of food and wine, attracting around 17 million visitors annually in search of the boot’s gastronomic delights, 90% of whom also arrive with wine tasting on their mind. Yet how many of these visitors end up in the south of the country? A paltry 7%, with Lazio, home to the capital Rome, creaming off a good proportion of that. Most of the Italian food and wine lovers end up in Tuscany, Piedmont and Trentino-Alto Adige. So where does that leave Sicily, once known as ‘God’s kitchen’, with its abundance of fresh produce and increasingly high-quality wines. Well, with a fraction of that 7%, I guess.

Sicily and its vinous and gastronomic bounty have a special place in my heart. So, when I received a call from Salvo Giusino of Cronache di Gusto and a subsequent invitation from Luigi Bonsignore, president of the Strada del Vino e dei Sapori della Valle dei Templi (Wine and Flavours Route of the Valley of Temples), to attend their inaugural conference and tasting in Agrigento at the beginning of June, I was delighted to accept.

The area of Agrigento is known primarily for the Valley of the Temples – an archaeological park with wonderfully preserved Greek temples that is the world’s largest archaeological site and one of Sicily’s main attractions. Yet of the 950,000 visitors visiting the park last year (up from 550,000 in 2012, according to director of the park, Giuseppe Parello), how many of these actually take the time to discover the wider region and its produce? Probably a fraction of that, before they jump back onto their tour buses and head back to resorts such as Taormina or Cefalù, having not spent a penny outside the park.

A group of local companies, including olive oil and wine producers, restaurants and hotels have clubbed together to establish a wine and food route, branded with the name ‘Valley of the Temples’ with the aim of improving the quality of tourism in the region and attracting visitors to remain longer and sample its wine, olive oil and abundant hospitality. It’s no coincidence that the Valley of the Temples is at the heart of the route, as the site also boasts a wonderful garden, and wine and olive oil are produced from the plantations within its boundaries.  The  produce from the park is branded with the name Diodoros; Val Paradiso (who also took us on a tour of their facilities) tend the olive and almond groves and produce the olive oil whereas the Canicattì cooperative produce the wine from a blend of 90% Nero d’Avola and 10% Nerello Mascalese and Nerello Cappuccio – the latter two varieties being more closely associated with Mount Etna.

1 June saw the official start of the wine route with a conference involving discussions and presentations by key members of the route, such as Luigi Bonsignore, its president and owner of Baglio Bonsignore and Fabio Gulotta, its director and owner of the Terracotta restaurant in Agrigento as well as representatives from the Sicilian Regional Institute for Wine and Oil and the Federation of Sicilian Wine Routes.

foto convegno Casa Sanfilippo

Luigi Bonsignore believes that the region has something unique to offer in terms of its olive oils and wines. It’s one of the best places to grow Nero d’Avola , he thinks, and the wines produced here represent the best expression of the variety. The initiative aims to bring this to the eyes of the public and attach it to the already known brand of the ‘Valley of the Temples’, which already draws crowds to Agrigento. The hope is that some of these visitors will then also remain a little longer and discover the beauty of the 250-kilometre route stretching from Casteltermini and Caltanissetta in the north to Licata and its heart, Agrigento, in the south.

The region also boasts attractive, off-the-beaten-track Baroque hill towns such as Nardo and the Farm Cultural Park of Favara where an abandoned town was brought back to life by community efforts and is now one of the area’s most important attractions – as its name suggests, an open-air cultural park. Florinda Saieva from the Farm Cultural Park emphasises the need for cooperation here in order to really achieve something.

One of the participants jokes that they now have a wine road, but no roads! A slight exaggeration perhaps, but one of the hurdles that the region, and Sicily as a whole, faces – is a lack of infrastructure. Many of the roads are in a poor state of repair and often lined with rubbish, an eyesore for tourists not used to this. They realise they need to work together to improve this situation as this also represents a factor for success. They are also proposing the introduction of mobility solutions for sustainable tourism, such as electric carsharing.

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The following day, journalists and visitors to the archaeological park had the chance to taste the producers’ wines and olive oils in an idyllic, if rather hot, setting in the heart of the site. As well as the region’s stated flagship variety, Nero d’Avola, juicy Grillo, elegant Perricone, attractive sparkling wine, zesty Cattaratto Comune, refreshing Nero d’Avola Rosé and spicy Syrah were on offer, demonstrating that the region has plenty to offer the curious wine lover.

A website is under construction at, where visitors will soon be able to find comprehensive information on the region and producers taking part in the initiative.

Foto soci Strada del Vino_Valle dei Templi

I wish them the best of luck and hope that the Valle dei Templi will soon become a more recognisable name on the Sicilian wine map. I’ll certainly be watching their progress eagerly.

Masseria del Feudo

Masseria del feudo

From wheat to organic Nero d’Avola

The Masseria, along with its picturesque chapel, was born as a farm a century ago, when the great-grandfather of the current, fourth generation of the Cucurullo family, Francesco and Carolina, bought a large part of a prince’s estate. Originally extensive agriculture, mostly wheat, on which Sicily grew rich in the Middle Ages, the estate near Caltanisetta has now been transformed into one of fruit and vines, along with some sixty cows.

Their father, Salvatore, swam against the stream in the sixties when many were fleeing the land and fields for the economic boom in the industrial north of Italy. However, Salvatore’s love for land and agriculture, and his determination led him to plant new vineyards and peach orchards. The estate now comprises twelve hectares of vines, three hectares of olives and twenty hectares of fruit, including peaches, apricots, plums and ripe pomegranates, bursting with juice, which we saw close up. The family previously sold their grape production to the giant labels of Corvo and Sette Sole; however, they have now built their own winery and bottle and sell their wines globally. The first label of the winery, Haermosa, their Chardonnay, was created in 2001 as a result of Francesco’s belief in the potential of this region, in the centre of hot sun-drenched Sicily. Carolina clearly believes in it too, as she told me she commuted here every day from Palermo – quite some commute!

Masseria vines

They grow Nero d’Avola, Grillo, Inzolia and two international varieties – Syrah and Chardonnay. The white varieties are planted on the white, limestone soils, the black varieties on brown clay. Their location 480m above sea level and the extreme dryness enable them to produce organically. The diurnal range of up to 15°C means their grapes can ripen fully while retaining essential acidity in such hot climes. Everything is done by hand, Francesco proudly tells us, only using machines to work the land itself. They also produce their own electricity using solar panels, selling on half of the energy produced. We could see some of them glinting on the hillside in the distance, at least that’s what I thought they were! In Sicilia DOC, irrigation is allowed in an emergency; they have a lake and two underground tanks for this purpose.

They pick some of their white grapes two days before vinification, to allow the indigenous yeasts to do their work, this is then used as a starter, pied de couvre, to ensure identity and typicity. They clarify the reds, but not the whites, and only do a little filtration. The whole thing is quite scary, admits Francesco, as they did everything differently until about four years ago. They have embarked on a serious project of innovation and diversification, in the middle of this beautiful landscape, surrounded by green hills. They have renovated the old rural building and installed a micro winemaking line, allowing them to make an experimental production using new grapes and wine-making techniques, which they hope will increase the value of their terroir.

Address: Contrada Grottarossa, Caltanisetta, Sicily, Italy
Phone: +39 0934 569 719

*This article first appeared on WineSofa, the first and only comprehensive website in English focussing on Central and Eastern European wine.

Feudo di Principi di Butera

Principi di Butera

The vinous heritage of the first prince of Sicily

You can see the sixteenth century feudo with its tower atop the hill from afar, seemingly a small castle, glowing golden in the afternoon Sicilian sun. Outside a fountain which was originally a granary in Roman times. Inside antique furniture and decorated tiles. The intense golden walls are surrounded by green rolling hills, set against the clear blue of the Sicilian sky. The view from the terrace is stunning. It’s in fact only 8 km from the sea, although it sits at 350 m above sea level with cool evening breezes to counter the baking hot Sicilian sun, which can reach 40°C in the summer. This, along with the protection afforded by nearby Mount Dessueri, provides a fantastic microclimate for quality wine production.

The northern Italian Zonin family recognised this and bought the estate in 1997, so it now forms part of their ten estate ‘empire’.  Thanks to them, the winery is a blend of modernism, efficiency and tradition.

Principi di Butera vineyards

Nero d’Avola, symbol of a renewed Sicilian oenological tradition, is the star here in the Gela region. The house and cellar are encircled with vines, pretty much as far as the eye can see – mostly Nero d’Avola, but also Inzolia, Grillo, Carricante, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Petit Verdot and Merlot. The entire property is fenced in to keep out the sheep. Claudio Galosi, the winemaker since 2009 and now director of the estate, stressed the importance of this, as some sheep once got in and within three minutes they had chomped their way through the grapes of three whole rows of vines.

Much of the terroir here is high in shell-rich limestone, thus also rich in calcium, which lends the grapes good acidity, preserving the elegance and fruitiness of the wines as they age. And in Sicily, you can do with this acidity! Claudio reckons their wines can easily age for eight to fifteen years. Of course, they use an appropriate rootstock to avoid chlorosis. Claudio points out, however, that the terroir changes pretty rapidly in Sicily, so there are many plots of land with quite different terroir over the 350 hectares of vines.

Down in the cellar, there are no barriques to be seen, they work only with large botti of either 300 or 600 litres or tonni of 350 litres. You can also see the emblem of Branciforte, the first prince of Sicily, emblazoned on the wall. This depicts a lion with his hand cut off, which was to protect the king. This feudo was the summer residence of Ambroglio Branciforte, Principe di Butera. The Branciforte family was one of the most powerful dynasties in Sicily, owning 10% of the entire island’s income by the beginning of the eighteenth century. Claudio explained the difference between a baglio and a feudo – the former is a fortified manor house close to the sea, whereas the other is further inland. The name Butera apparently comes from Re Bute, the first king of the Siculi, so land, and wines, with a truly noble heritage.

Address: Contrada Deliella, 93011 Butera (CL), Sicily, Italy
Phone: +39 0934 347 726

*This article first appeared on WineSofa, the first and only comprehensive website in English focussing on Central and Eastern European wine.


Vinicola Benanti

Vinicola Benanti
Vinicola Benanti

Giuseppe Benanti – one of Italy’s pioneering winemakers

When Giuseppe Benanti revived his old passion and started to bottle and sell his wine internationally in 1988, there were only four producers on Etna, now there are approximately 125, 98% of which come from outside the area. However, they see each other as colleagues, not competitors, as they are all producing wine from different terroirs.

The Benanti family moved from Bologna to the Catania area in the eighteenth century, and Giuseppe’s namesake began production of wines on the slopes of Mount Etna at the end of the 1800s. However, in the nineteen-sixties most of Etna’s vineyards were abandoned, perhaps a blessing in disguise, as many escaped replanting, thus preserving genetic diversity. In the eighties, Giuseppe Benanti and other pioneering winemakers started to produce wine again, but according to different rules. At this time, the wine often achieved alcohol levels of 16-18% and people were generally growers, whereas now they are producers of quality wines.

Vinicola Benanti

Giuseppe invited experts from Asti and Bonn to advise him and they decided to produce wines strictly linked to each terroir. His philosophy is follow your heart, and respect the soil, the place, the terroir and the seasons; they are a traditional winery, as evidenced by their beautiful buildings, including an old ‘palmento’, but also modern and dynamic. Giuseppe has made extensive studies of Etnean soils devoted to viticulture and investigated old indigenous clones and new vinification techniques to combine the ancient flavours with modern oenological practices. Indeed, the winery has already patented four indigenous yeasts.

He was joined three years ago by his twin sons Antonio and Salvino.

They focus on the traditional Etnean varieties of Nerello mascalese, Nerello cappuccio and Carricante, of which they also make a sparkling version. However, they do not make rosé, because, as Giuseppe says, they don’t want to be followers. They used to have a bigger range of wines, but make just eight now, usually varietals. If they do make a DOC Etna blend, then they add at least 10% Nerello cappuccio, so it is at least meaningful.

One threat they see to the Etna ‘brand’ is that many producers release their wines too early, which they feel doesn’t do justice to Etna. They are trying to resist this trend and release their wines after a minimum of 47 months and would like to see an obligatory minimum of say 18 months.

In addition to their vines on Etna, including some pre-phylloxera Nerello Mascelese up on Monte Serra, they have invested in vineyards close to Syracuse, home of Nero d’Avola – before it spread to the rest of the island – and Moscato di Noto, and also on Pantelleria, where they produce Passito di Pantelleria.

The grandiose room where we had lunch is lined with paintings, which form the basis of their wines’ labels. Antonio jokingly informed us that Bacchus had his head cut off as they ran out of paper!

Address: Via Garibaldi 361, 95029 Viagrande, Sicily, Italy
Phone: +39 095 789 3399

This article first appeared on WineSofa, the first and only comprehensive website in English focussing on Central and Eastern European wine.

Donnafugata – a woman fleeing her past


A tribute to Sicilian history and literature

Antonio and José, are the fifth generation of the Rallo family, making wine in Sicily since 1851, when their Marsala cellars were built, although the brand name Donnafugata itself only dates from 1983. José explained that this name, logo of a woman’s head with windblown hair and mission personified her mother, escaping her past as a schoolteacher, when she inherited the vineyard. Although their website paints a different picture, as a tribute to Sicilian history. In this case, the ‘donna fugata’, the woman in flight, is Queen Maria Carolina, wife of Ferdinand IV of Bourbon who fled Napoleon’s troops when they took Naples, seeking refuge in Sicily. Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa, author of ‘Il Gattopardo’, The Leopard, gave this name to the country estate of the Prince of Salina, where the queen stayed and which now holds some of the family’s vineyards.  The literary theme is also continued in ‘Tancredi’, their Nero d’Avola and Cabernet Sauvignon blend. Tancredi was the revolutionary hero of the above novel, obligatory reading for those who want to learn something about Sicilian history.

In the past in Sicily, the philosophy was to grub up vines that don’t produce lots of grapes. This led to a decline in quality and the near loss of traditional varieties. Donnafugata’s philosophy is quite the opposite, to select vines producing less and grub up the others, to focus on the cluster, climate, terroir and vintage. When the neighbours observed what they were doing, the Rallos were asked accusingly, ‘Does your grandfather know what you’re doing?’

The cellars in Marsala, still retaining their original ‘baglio’ (fortified manor house) layout with citrus and olive trees, are their strategic base. However, they also have vineyards in Contessa Entellina and on Pantelleria, where the vines are more than 100 years old. Here the vines are dug into holes to protect them from the fierce Sirocco wind. This is where their luscious passito Bem ryè originates. Made from Zibibbo grapes (aka Muscat of Alessandria), the grapes are cut as for a green harvest and dried on nets or in greenhouses for 20 days. Before fermentation, the grapes are then added to fresh grape must, which enables them to maintain a balance between fresh acidity and the sweet, concentrated passito grapes.

They are also participating in a regional project, planting 19 different autochthonous varieties, including some almost extinct varieties, such as Alzano, Nocera and Vitrarolo, along with clones of more familiar varieties such as Nero d’Avola and Catarratto. They hope it will be possible to try the wines from some of these in ten years or so.

In addition to their literary connections, there is also a musical element – the Donnafugata Music&Wine Live project, pairing wine and jazz in a multi-sensorial experience, with the proceeds going to help the Palermo City Hospital. The singer is none other than José, who also broke into song with a rendition of a Sicilian folk song during our tasting!

Address: Via S. Lipari 18, 91025 Marsala, Sicily, Italy
Phone: +39 0923 724 200

*This article first appeared on WineSofa, the first and only comprehensive website in English focussing on Central and Eastern European wine.

A week in God’s kitchen

Marsala sunset

When I’m too old and feeble to do little more than eat and drink, Sicily would not be a bad place to be

What comes to mind when you hear ‘Sicily’? Cosa Nostra, corruption, horses’ heads in beds, mass shootings in Palermo, huge lakes of EU-funded cheap wine, as well as the nicer aspects, Limoncello, ice cream, Etna (depending on how you see it – she’s quite fiery at the moment), sun, sea and sand. However, Sicily has much more to offer.

When I’m too old and feeble to do little more than eat and drink, Sicily would not be a bad place to be. Famed throughout antiquity for its agricultural produce, including, of course wine, Sicily is a place where you can’t help but eat and drink well, and my waistline after a week there certainly attested to that. A series of ‘light’ lunches and dinners consisting of cous cous, swordfish, arancini, pasta, sardines, caponata,  lasagne, baked aubergine, fried baby squid, panelle, cannoli, pistachios, olives, cheese and, oh yes, a pistachio granita in Catania, wreaked havoc.

Sicily has been overrun by a myriad of peoples, including the Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Normans and Bourbons, all of whom have left their mark on the island in many ways, making it a fascinating place to visit. So, October saw a group of wine lovers descending on Sicily to learn about the wines, food and culture, from Marsala, Etna and en route between the two.

Mt Etna, with Catania in the foreground

My odyssey started in Catania, from where I set off with Brandon and Lidia across the island towards Marsala where we would spend a couple of days visiting wineries. Brandon had warned me that we would have to take a ‘slight’ detour due to the collapse of a motorway bridge. We took the shorter, ‘unofficial’ detour, which took us up into the hills and villages of the mountainous interior and involved a tortuous, rather sheer descent down a hastily constructed ‘road’ and over a somewhat flimsy looking bridge back to the motorway – I had been warned!

Shortly after we arrived at Baglio Donna Franca, our hotel, but also a working winery with a great restaurant, the skies opened; this didn’t bode well for our morning trip to Mozia, a small island just beyond the salt pans of Marsala, which we’d been warned would be cancelled in case of (torrential) rain (and strong winds). Here Tasca d’Almerita produces Grillo Mozia.

Thus, Donnafugata was our only winery port of call the next day, where we tried a wide range of their wines, including some tank samples, 1999 Mille e una note (principally Nero d’Avola and a small amount of other unstated varieties) and the luscious Ben Ryè, Passito di Pantelleria 2013 and 1990. After a light lunch, and light generally has the opposite meaning with regard to lunch in Sicily, we were able to sample wines from a number of other Sicilian producers, including local varieties such as Perricone, Carricante, Grillo, Catarratto, Inzolia (also known as Ansonica), Grecanico, Frappato, Nerello Mascalese, Zibibbo (in fact, Muscat of Alexandria) and more.


Next day saw us visiting, preceded by an extended ‘hunt the winery’ in the winding, often unmarked streets, of Marsala, the truly garage winery of Foderà, so well-hidden, that none of the numerous people we asked for directions knew there was a winery there. Antonio and his son produce a Grillo, a Merlot and two Syrahs, and late harvest Merlot and Grillo – both delicious, as is their olive oil. All of which they label by hand using an old wooden machine. After a hearty lunch of barbecued sausages and various cakes, we headed up the hill to visit the white cube I could see from my Baglio window. The white cube, unfortunately sticking out a bit from the surrounding hillside, was the new winery of Nino Barraco, who produces a range of natural wines from solely Sicilian varieties, including a Perricone. We were fortunate enough to be there at sunset and Nino’s terrace afforded us an amazing view over the Marsala salt pans, with their windmills and piles of salt, and the Egadi Islands beyond.

As well as visiting the salt pans and the salt museum, the town centre, with its narrow streets, historic buildings and imposing cathedral are worth visiting, as is the nearby hilltop town of Erice and the fishing town of Trapani. Perhaps you might also be lucky enough to make it over to the island of Mozia to visit its Phoenician ruins in one of the flat-bottomed boats which ply the lagoon, or you could even paddle out there. Marsala, like any Sicilian town, also offers ample opportunities for eating and drinking, for example dine at Ristorante Le Lumie, Bottega del Carmine, or eat in or pick up some supplies for a picnic at the wonderful Ciacco Putia Gourmet. You could either stay in an old Baglio up on the hill, such as Baglio Donna Franca or Baglio Oneto, or in town at Hotel Carmine. Of course, being in Marsala, you shouldn’t miss its namesake fortified wine, so in this case, you should pay a visit to Marco De Bartoli.

Teatro Massimo

Those craving big city life could make a day trip to Palermo, the capital of Sicily and visit the Norman cathedral, Teatro Massimo (the largest in Italy) and the Vucciria market – Vucciria means ‘confusion’ in Sicilian, so just watch your bag!

Heading over to Etna on the other side of the island, we bumped along on the bus, many at the back cracking their heads on its roof, past the incredibly well-preserved Greek temples of Agrigento, standing proud against the azure sky. We called in for yet more food and wine at Masseria del Fuedo and Principi di Butera in the Caltanisetta region before arriving at the foot of Etna after sunset, ready for a new experience.

The next day dawned clear and bright and we set off on our red-plastic-seated, open-topped tourist bus to discover Etna. Etna is a strange place; bordered on one side by the sea, close to the city of Catania, a startlingly high number of settlements pepper the sides of the glowering volcano, with its plume of white smoke rising into the blue sky. As you climb the winding roads, settlements become sparser and you are greeted by vines, nestled on the black volcanic soils, supported in many places with black-walled terraces. We saw how the lava flows are constantly changing the landscape and the soils. The vines are generally trained in albarello, that is a vine trained up a single post, the traditional method on Etna. Etna, although a historical vineyard area, was mostly abandoned in the mid-twentieth century as people sought an easier life elsewhere. However, in the eighties, winemakers such as Benanti began to revive the old traditions and there are now more than 100 wineries (and growing) up on the sides of the volcano, although the majority are not locals.

We visited five wineries, each quite different from the other. I Custodi delle Vigne dell’Etna is currently building a new sustainable winery, which will use a natural cooling system, using wind directed down a tower – it’s quite windy up on Etna. The charming Antonio Benanti took us on a short tour of some old Benanti vineyards and then we had a ‘light’ lunch in the magnificent dining room of the winery. At Fischetti, we saw a mixed vineyard of ungrafted vines, whose average age is 82 years. Fabio, the Italian export manager with a Yorkshire accent, escorted us around the vines at Terrazze di Etna and showed us the Cirneco dogs, said to accompany the Egyptians home when eating and drinking – there was also a statue of one towering above the entrance gate. At Nicosia, we took a look around their palmento before heading down to their main winery building, where there was a painted scooter down in the cellar, like the painted two-wheeled donkey carts I remember from childhood visits to Sicily – there’s also one at Benanti’s winery.

Vines on Etna

Incidentally, the palmento is the traditional winery of Etna, where the grapes were brought, pressed and processed. In the past, there were hundreds of these, and many of the wineries still retain one for visitors to see. Now, however, you can’t legally make wine in a palmento, unless for your own consumption – although, that would be very expensive. Everyone showed typical Sicilian hospitality, each laying on an excess of delicious food, and hosting the wines from four or five other wineries. Therefore we had plenty of chance to try a huge range of Etna Rosso and Bianco and of course Nerello Mascalese, Nerello Cappuccio, Catarratto and Carricante, the varieties most typically planted on Etna, as well as a wonderful orange amaro.

You should of course visit Etna itself, pay a visit to Catania and its magnificent, yet sadly rather dilapidated palazzi and marvel at the Roman theatre up on the hill in Taormina. If you have time to head a bit further afield, then take a look at Baroque Noto, Ragusa and the Greek port of Siracusa.

You could stay at the Picciolo Golf Resort in Rovitello or the Tenuta San Michele in Murgo, and perhaps you might end up dining with some winemakers at the inexpensive Bar Osteria Cave Ox in Solicchita with its excellent range of Etna wines and home-cooked food.


And if you want to learn more about Sicily through literature, I can recommend two books from my university days – Leonardo Sciasca’s ‘Day of the Owl’, regarding the Mafia, or Lampedusa’s ‘The Leopard’, about the declining years of the nobility in Sicily – they say quite a lot about why Sicily is like it is. There are also two great books on Sicilian wine: Palmento by Robert Camuto and The World of Sicilian Wine by Bill Nesto and Frances Di Savino.

As we barely touched the surface of Sicily, I’ll definitely be back.

*This article first appeared on WineSofa, the first and only comprehensive website in English focussing on Central and Eastern European wine.